# Expanded Accounting Equation: Definition, Formula, How It Works

First, it can sell shares of its stock to the public to raise money to purchase the assets, or it can use profits earned by the business to finance its activities. Second, it can borrow the money from a lender such as a financial institution. You will learn about other assets as you progress through the book. Let’s now take a look at the right side of the accounting equation. Net income reported on the income statement flows into the
statement of retained earnings. If a business has net income
(earnings) for the period, then this will increase its retained
earnings for the period.

See the article “The contentious debit—seriously” on continuous debt for further discussion of this practice. At the point they are used, they no longer have an economic value to the organization, and their cost is now an expense to the business. An automated accounting system is designed to use double-entry accounting. When you review each entry and the trial balance, you can make sure that total debits equal total credits, and that the accounting equation holds true. Shareholders’ equity is the total value of the company expressed in dollars. Put another way, it is the amount that would remain if the company liquidated all of its assets and paid off all of its debts.

## How the Expanded Accounting Equation Works

This guide will help you understand the concept in theory and teach you how to apply it in practice. Buildings, machinery, and land are all considered long-term assets. Machinery is usually specific to a manufacturing business that has a factory producing goods. Machinery and buildings are often called PPE – Property Plant and Equipment. Unlike other long-term assets such as machinery, buildings, and equipment, land is not depreciated.

• You will learn about other assets as
you progress through the book.
• If a business has net income
(earnings) for the period, then this will increase its retained
earnings for the period.
• The fundamental accounting equation, also called the balance sheet equation, represents the relationship between the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity of a person or business.
• Net income from the income statement is included in the Equity account called retained earnings on the balance sheet.
• Using the basic Accounting Equation, all changes to an owner’s equity are calculated within the broad category of Equity.
• But first, it may help to examine the many accounts that can fall under each of the main categories of Assets, Liabilities, and Equity, in terms of their relationship to the expanded accounting equation.

The dividend could be paid with cash or be a distribution of more company stock to current shareholders. An account is a contra account if its normal balance is opposite of the normal balance of the category to which it belongs. The normal taxable income on your 2021 irs tax return due in 2022 balance for the equity category is a credit balance whereas the normal balance for dividends is a debit balance resulting in dividends reducing total equity. Another component of shareholders’ equity is the business’s earnings.

Assets refer to the resources owned by an individual or business, such as cash, inventory, or property. Liabilities, on the other hand, represent the debts and obligations owed by the entity. Owner’s equity represents the owner’s or shareholders’ claim to the assets after deducting liabilities.

## Relationship to Double Entry Accounting

Accounts payable recognises that the business owes money and has not paid. Remember, when a customer purchases something “on account” it means the customer has asked to be billed and will pay at a later date. We begin with the left side of the equation, the assets, and work toward the right side of the equation to liabilities and equity. A business can now use this equation to analyse transactions in more detail. But first, it may help to examine the many accounts that can fall under each of the main categories of Assets, Liabilities, and Equity, in terms of their relationship to the expanded accounting equation. We can begin this discussion by looking at the chart of accounts.

## What Is the Accounting Equation, and How Do You Calculate It?

The expanded equation is used to compare a company’s assets with greater granularity than provided by the basic equation. Contributed capital and dividends show the effect of transactions with the stockholders. The difference between the revenue and profit generated and expenses and losses incurred reflects the effect of net income (NI) on stockholders’ equity. Overall, then, the expanded accounting equation is useful in identifying at a basic level how stockholders’ equity in a firm changes from period to period. The expanded accounting equation is defined as a form of the basic accounting equation that divides the stakeholder’s or owners’ equity into more components, including contributed capital, revenue, and dividends. It provides a more detailed view of the company’s worth and how it uses its profits.

It is important to understand that when we talk
from customers could also be liabilities. Essentially, anything a
company owes and has yet to pay within a period is considered a
liability, such as salaries, utilities, and taxes. Buildings, machinery, and land are all considered long-term
assets. Machinery is usually specific to a manufacturing company
that has a factory producing goods.

## Expanded Accounting Equation for a Corporation

First, it can
sell shares of its stock to the public to raise money to purchase
the assets, or it can use profits earned by the business to finance
its activities. Second, it can borrow the money from a lender such
as a financial institution. You will learn about other assets as
you progress through the book. Let’s now take a look at the right
side of the accounting equation. The expanded accounting equation makes it easier to see how shareholders’ equity in a company changes between periods.

Assets are
resources a company owns that have an economic value. Assets are
represented on the balance sheet financial statement. Some common
examples of assets are cash, accounts receivable, inventory,
supplies, prepaid expenses, notes receivable, equipment, buildings,
machinery, and land. You will notice that stockholder’s equity increases with common stock issuance and revenues, and decreases from dividend payouts and expenses. Stockholder’s equity is reported on the balance sheet in the form of contributed capital (common stock) and retained earnings.

Unlike other long-term assets such as machinery,
buildings, and equipment, land is not depreciated. The process to
calculate the loss on land value could be very cumbersome,
speculative, and unreliable; therefore, the treatment in accounting
is for land to not be depreciated
over time. Notes receivable is similar to accounts receivable in that it is
money owed to the company by a customer or other entity.

“Members’ capital” and “owners’ capital” are commonly used for partnerships and sole proprietorships, respectively, while “distributions” and “withdrawals” are substitute nomenclature for “dividends.” Debt is a liability, whether it is a long-term loan or a bill that is due to be paid. In this scenario, money from cake sale will be deposited in the bank. In tutorial 2 we learned that the left side is known as the debit side and the right side is known as the credit side.